Caries is the most common dental problem. Over the past few years, regeneration of the lost tooth structure has been carried out using stem cells. One basic requirement for tissue regeneration is a cell that has the potential to differentiate into specialized cells. Dental pulp serves as an excellent source of stem cells. It can be isolated easily and can be used in regeneration of the tooth structure (enamel, dentin and the pulp) that has been lost due to dental caries. With ongoing research and technology development stem cells could soon take the place of dental cements to treat caries.